Home Reef


Home Reef is a shallow submarine volcano located within the Tonga-Kermadec arc, known for its highly dynamic and ephemeral nature. Emergent islands have periodically formed due to Home Reef’s surtseyan eruptions, only to be rapidly eroded by wave action. The volcano exhibits primarily explosive activity, characterized by the ejection of volcaniclastic material and the formation of ash plumes. Recent eruptions in 2006, 2022, and ongoing activity highlight the potential for future island formations at Home Reef.

Location: Haʻapai, Tonga
Coordinates: -19.178885, -174.849635
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano


Home Reef’s Location


Home Reef’s Latest Status

2024: Not Active. The persistence of the emergent island is confirmed, however there is no discoloration of the surrounding water suggesting the volcano is not active at this time.


Home Reef’s Eruptive History

Year Overview
1852 Possible submarine eruption (eyewitness reports may exist, but confirmation is challenging)
1857 Possible submarine eruption (same challenges as the 1852 event)
1984 Surtseyan eruption leading to the formation of a temporary island. Eruptions produced ash plumes reaching 12 km in height.
2006 Major surtseyan eruption and island formation, marked by extensive pumice rafts floating over large distances.
2022 Satellite observations confirmed a new eruption with ash emissions and signs of fresh volcanic material at the surface, likely leading to another island formation.
2023 Ongoing volcanic activity evidenced by thermal anomalies and gas and ash emissions.


Home Reef Monitoring

Please refer to Tonga Geological Services for monitoring of this volcano.


Home Reef Images