Tonga Volcanoes


The Kingdom of Tonga is situated along the highly volcanically active Tonga-Kermadec subduction zone, a region where the Pacific Plate descends below the Indo-Australian Plate. This tectonic setting has given rise to a chain of volcanoes, both submarine and emergent, forming the Tongan archipelago. The volcanism in Tonga is characterized by a mix of explosive and effusive eruptions, producing volcanic cones, calderas, and extensive lava flows. The composition of these volcanoes ranges from basaltic to andesitic, with some displaying more silicic characteristics.