Mount Tambora, located on the island of Sumbawa in Indonesia, is a stratovolcano renowned for its catastrophic eruption in 1815. This eruption stands as the largest in recorded history, ejecting a staggering volume of ash and debris into the atmosphere. The resulting volcanic winter led to global climate anomalies, causing widespread crop failures, famine, and societal upheaval.

Location: Sumbawa, Indonesia
Coordinates: -8.245101, 117.993412
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano


Tambora’s Location


Tambora’s Latest Status

2024: Level I (Not Active)


Tambora’s Eruptive History

Year Overview
Before 1815 While Tambora had previous eruptions, reliable records are limited. Evidence suggests major eruptions around 3910 BC, 3050 BC, and 740 AD. These likely had significant impacts, but details are less clear.
1812 Increased seismic activity including rumbling and venting. A dark ash cloud appeared over the crater.
1815 Catastrophic eruption (VEI-7) beginning on April 5th with tremors and pyroclastic flows. The main explosion occurred on April 10th, ejecting immense volumes of ash, pumice, and rock. Caldera collapse occurred and tsunamis devastated surrounding coastlines. The ash column spread globally, causing a volcanic winter.
1819 Smaller eruption with reported flames and rumbling aftershocks. This is often considered part of the extended 1815 eruptive event.
1880 Minor eruption within the newly formed caldera.
1967 Minor eruption inside the caldera, primarily emitting steam and ash.
2011 – 2013 Periods of increased seismic activity with raised alert levels. This included swarms of small earthquakes and increases in steam and gas emissions.


Tambora Monitoring

For monitoring of Indonesian Volcanoes, please refer to PVMBG.


Tambora Images