Krakatoa was an active volcanic island located in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia. Krakatoa was one of the most violent volcanic events in the history of volcanoes, blowing itself to pieces. Since 1927, the island has slowly been rebuilding itself over successive eruptions (Anak Krakatau). In 2017, the volcano was 400m above sea level. A major collapse occurred in 2018, creating a tsunami that killed 426 people. The volcano now stands at 110m above sea level.

Extreme Pursuit has visited and landed on Anak Krakatau (Son of Krakatoa) multiple times, including prior and after the 2018 Tsunami. We witnessed large eruptions with lava bombs crashing into the surrounding ocean.

Location: Sunda Strait, Indonesia
Coordinates: -6.101424, 105.422976
Volcano Type: Caldera


Krakatoa’s Location


Krakatoa’s Latest Status

2024: Small scale eruptions, sometimes producing strombolian style continue. The cone continues to grow.


Krakatoa’s Eruptive History

June 1679-1680 First observations by Johann Wilhelm Vogel. Krakatoa was covered in forest on his first visit. During his second visit, Krakatoa was erupting violently, having destroyed most of the forest.
1883- Great Eruption A series of smaller eruptions began in May, 1883. Come August, four large eruptions occurred destroying the island. The third was so large, a pressure wave traveled around the world four times. The sound of the explosion was heard over 3,000 miles away. Only part of Rakata Island remained (and still remains to this very day).
1927 Ongoing eruptions created a new island at the same location called “Anak Krakatau” – Son or Child of Krakatoa
1927-2000 Eruptions continue roughly ever three-to-four years, growing approximately five meters each year.
2007 Strombolian eruptive activity from a new vent.
2008 Ongoing activity – Strombolian eruptions, lava bombs and ash plumes reaching 1000m.
2009 Activity continues. Short but violent explosions, lava bombs reaching the ocean.
2010 Small eruptions and ash plumes.
2011 Active lava dome observed. Small ash eruptions – plumes to 3000m.
2012-17 Lower period of activity – some small eruptions and degassing recorded.
2018 October Extreme Pursuit observed large vulcanian-type eruptions and large ash plumes. Frequent eruptions every 10 mins and lava flows reaching the ocean.
2018 December December 22 – A significant increase in activity was recorded with over 400 eruptions in just 6 hrs. Shortly after 9pm, a large eruption caused a massive collapse of the south-west flank of the volcano, triggering a tsunami. Following this, the height of the volcano was reduced to 110 meters.
2019 November Extreme Pursuit landed on the dramatically changed volcanic island and observed a large crater lake with ongoing phreatic eruptions. The acidity of the lake was measured at between pH1-2.
2019 December Significant surtseyan eruptions before a large eruption took place on Dec 30 (just before 7.00am local time) with an ash plume extending to 10,000 ft and incandescent tephra visible.
2020 April High-level magmatic eruption with ash to 47,000ft. It appears a lava delta has formed and in turn, created a more substantial sea barrier. There’s a possibility of more strombolian type eruptions (and more reconstruction). Water Index data shows a slither of crater lake still holding on, but is now largely gone.
2022 After a brief period of low activity, Krakatau has again erupted, producing plumes to 1km. An ever increasing cinder cone has been created and the lake that existed prior has all but gone.
2023 Small scale eruptions continue. Most are white steam/gas, with occasional ash eruptions.
2024 Small scale eruptions, sometimes producing strombolian style continue. The cone continues to grow.


Krakatoa’s Monitoring

For monitoring of Indonesian Volcanoes, please refer to PVMBG.


Krakatoa’s Images