Krakatoa

Krakatoa was an active volcanic island located in the Sunda Strait, Indonesia. Krakatoa was one of the most violent volcanic events in the history of volcanoes, blowing itself to pieces. Since 1927, the island has slowly been rebuilding itself over successive eruptions (Anak Krakatau). In 2017, the volcano was 400m above sea level. A major collapse occurred in 2018, creating a tsunami that killed 426 people. The volcano now stands at 110m above sea level.

Extreme Pursuit visited and landed on Anak Krakatau (Son of Krakatoa) in October 2018. We witnessed large eruptions with lava bombs crashing into the surrounding ocean.

Location: Sunda Strait, Indonesia
Coordinates: -6.101424, 105.422976
Volcano Type: Caldera

Krakatoa's location

Krakatoa/Anak Krakatau News

April 2020: High-level magmatic eruption with ash to 47,000ft

Based on the latest satellite imagery, it appears a lava delta has formed and in turn, created a more substantial sea barrier. There's a possibility of more strombolian type eruptions (and more reconstruction). Water Index data shows a slither of crater lake still holding on, but is now largely gone.


Dec 2019: Significant surtseyan eruptions before a large eruption took place on Dec 30 (just before 7.00am local time) with an ash plume extending to 10,000 ft and incandescent tephra visible. The crater lake is slowly disappearing.


Nov 2019: Extreme Pursuit landed on the dramatically changed volcanic island and observed a large crater lake with ongoing phreatic eruptions. The acidity of the lake was measured at between pH1-2.


Dec 2018: A large part of the south-western cone of Krakatau appears to have given way. This and probable collapses undersea have caused a massive displacement of water. One theory suggests this resulted from recent lava flows combining with accumulated material over many decades. This created a tipping point and ultimately caused the collapse. This may have exposed the conduit (the plumbing of the volcano), allowing sea water to enter and therefore causing the huge eruptive plume. Anak Krakatau has produced a plume rising over 55,000ft (~17km). That's a significant event. 

The latest data from Sentinel1 shows more changes with the summit cone all but gone. We now have a more detailed survey of the extent of the flank collapse as it stands today. With the conduit exposed, magma is erupting through the seawater creating the impressive phreatomagmatic eruptions as seen in recent footage.

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Krakatoa/Anak Krakatau's Eruptive History

June 1679-1680 First observations by Johann Wilhelm Vogel. Krakatoa was covered in forest on his first visit. During his second visit, Krakatoa was erupting violently, having destroyed most of the forest.
1883- Great Eruption A series of smaller eruptions began in May, 1883. Come August, four large eruptions occurred destroying the island. The third was so large, a pressure wave traveled around the world four times. The sound of the explosion was heard over 3,000 miles away. Only part of Rakata Island remained (and still remains to this very day).
1927 Ongoing eruptions created a new island at the same location called "Anak Krakatau" - Son or Child of Krakatoa
1927-2000 Eruptions continue roughly ever three-to-four years, growing approximately five meters each year.
2007 Strombolian eruptive activity from a new vent.
2008 Ongoing activity - Strombolian eruptions, lava bombs and ash plumes reaching 1000m.
2009 Activity continues. Short but violent explosions, lava bombs reaching the ocean.
2010 Small eruptions and ash plumes.
2011 Active lava dome observed. Small ash eruptions - plumes to 3000m.
2012-17 Lower period of activity - some small eruptions and degassing recorded.
2018 October Extreme Pursuit observed large vulcanian-type eruptions and large ash plumes. Frequent eruptions every 10 mins and lava flows reaching the ocean.
2018 December December 22 - A significant increase in activity was recorded with over 400 eruptions in just 6 hrs. Shortly after 9pm, a large eruption caused a massive collapse of the south-west flank of the volcano, triggering a tsunami. Following this, the height of the volcano was reduced to 110 meters.
2019 November Extreme Pursuit landed on the dramatically changed volcanic island and observed a large crater lake with ongoing phreatic eruptions. The acidity of the lake was measured at between pH1-2.
2019 December Significant surtseyan eruptions before a large eruption took place on Dec 30 (just before 7.00am local time) with an ash plume extending to 10,000 ft and incandescent tephra visible.
2020 April High-level magmatic eruption with ash to 47,000ft. It appears a lava delta has formed and in turn, created a more substantial sea barrier. There's a possibility of more strombolian type eruptions (and more reconstruction). Water Index data shows a slither of crater lake still holding on, but is now largely gone.

 

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Images of Krakatoa/Anak Krakatau

Anak Krakatau Monitoring