Raoul Island

Raoul Island, the largest and northernmost of the Kermadec Islands, represents an emergent peak of a large submarine stratovolcano. It is situated approximately 1000 km northeast of New Zealand’s North Island. Raoul Island lies along the Kermadec Arc, a convergent plate boundary where the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the Australian Plate. This subduction zone drives the volcanism that formed Raoul Island and the broader Kermadec Arc.

  • Dominant Rock Types: Eruptions on Raoul Island have produced a range of compositions, including basaltic andesite, andesite, and dacite.
  • Caldera Formation: Raoul Island’s complex topography includes multiple calderas, the largest being Denham Caldera, formed during a major eruption around 2200 years ago.
  • Recent Activity: Raoul Island is considered an active volcano. Significant eruptions occurred in 2006, marked by phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions and lava dome formation.
  • Hazard Potential: Future eruptions are likely, potentially including explosive events, lava flows, and the generation of lahars (volcanic mudflows).